News Archive

 

 

CLIMIT Summit 2019 open for registrationhttp://www.climit.no/en/climit-summit-2019-open-for-registrationCLIMIT Summit 2019 open for registration2018-11-30T09:38:49ZCLIMIT Summit 2019, which will be organized in Oslo February 26-27, is now open for registration. Click on the link below the programme to see register.
Testing whether the caprock can withstand the pressurehttp://www.climit.no/en/testing-whether-the-caprock-can-withstand-the-pressureTesting whether the caprock can withstand the pressure2018-11-30T09:32:50ZCO2 storage sites under the ocean floor in the North Sea consist of porous rock types with a harder and denser caprock type above it. THE PROTECT project is studying the ability of the caprock type to withstand pressurised CO2.
Developing special materials that can capture CO2http://www.climit.no/en/developing-special-materials-that-can-capture-co2Developing special materials that can capture CO22018-10-09T11:45:29ZThe most common technology used to capture CO2 from flue gas is the use of amines. However, this is an energy intensive process. SINTEF develops materials that can capture CO2 by adsorption.
CLIMIT-Demo call for ISO expert applications http://www.climit.no/en/climit-demo-call-for-applications-for-iso-expertCLIMIT-Demo call for ISO expert applications 2018-09-06T14:20:35ZThis is a call for funding of projects to participate as experts in the international standardization work for CCS (ISO-TC 265).
Cost-effective monitoring of CO2 storage siteshttp://www.climit.no/en/cost-effective-monitoring-of-co2-storage-sitesCost-effective monitoring of CO2 storage sites2018-08-16T08:36:32ZWhen CO2 is injected below the ocean floor, very small movements in the bedrock may arise. OCTIO in Bergen is attempting to find the most costeffective method for the long-term monitoring of microseismic activity around the future CO2 storage sites.
CSLF awards CLIMIT supported Norcem projecthttp://www.climit.no/en/climit-støttet-prosjekt-får-internasjonal-anerkjennelseCSLF awards CLIMIT supported Norcem project2018-07-03T12:27:00ZThe Euro 10 million project that determined which technologies are best suited for cement plants, is now recognized by Carbon Sequestration Forum (CSLF).
More R&D projects continue as demo projectshttp://www.climit.no/en/more-r-d-projects-continue-as-demo-projectsMore R&D projects continue as demo projects2018-05-31T09:11:33ZThe new annual report from CLIMIT contains a broad review of some of the many exciting and relevant CCS projects that receive support from the CLIMIT research program under the direction of Gassnova and the Norwegian Research Council.
Creating gold in a green process industryhttp://www.climit.no/en/wants-to-make-gold-and-green-process-industryCreating gold in a green process industry2018-05-16T11:23:45ZThe vision of the process industry is to increase production, become climate neutral and maintain a leading position in the international market. The Char C project aims to help the process industry achieve its climate targets.
Solid international collaborationhttp://www.climit.no/en/solid-international-collaborationSolid international collaboration2018-04-24T08:51:40ZInternational collaboration is required in order to make the capture, transport and storage of CO2 an efficient climate measure. CLIMIT greatly contributes to this.
Closing the gaps in CO2 well plugging http://www.climit.no/en/closing-the-gaps-in-co2-well-pluggingClosing the gaps in CO2 well plugging 2018-04-05T13:11:12Z​Well integrity is very important when CO2 is stored underground. The CO2plug project has addressed this topic and the final report from the project reveals very interesting results that are of high relevance for CO2 storage operators.
Preem assesses carbon capture from Lysekil refineryhttp://www.climit.no/en/preem-assesses-carbon-capture-from-lysekil-refineryPreem assesses carbon capture from Lysekil refinery2018-02-21T11:38:18ZPreem has started a CLIMIT supported carbon capture (CCS) pilot study on their refinery in Lysekil.
New IEAGHG reportshttp://www.climit.no/en/new-ieaghg-reportsNew IEAGHG reports2018-02-02T07:58:17ZThere are several new, interesting reports from IEAGHG, i.e. about CO2 Storage efficiency, Pubic perception of CO2 pipelines and a Monitoring Network meeting.
Pioneering work with Pd-alloy membrane materialshttp://www.climit.no/en/design-fabrication-and-characterisation-of-h2-selective-pd-alloy-membranesPioneering work with Pd-alloy membrane materials2018-01-30T09:27:34Z​The pre-memCO2 project aimed to develop improved H2-selective Pd-alloy membrane materials for integration in pre-combustion decarbonisation process schemes.
CLIMIT project mentioned in Carbon Capture Journalhttp://www.climit.no/en/climit-project-mentioned-in-carbon-capture-journalCLIMIT project mentioned in Carbon Capture Journal2017-12-10T10:12:13Z"CMC Research Institutes in Canada has teamed up with SINTEF Petroleum Research in Norway to advance a new method for monitoring carbon dioxide geologically stored at onshore and offshore sites, such as the Norwegian Continental Shelf".
New interesting IEAGHG reportshttp://www.climit.no/en/new-interesting-ieaghg-reportsNew interesting IEAGHG reports2017-09-27T08:30:47ZIEAGHG has published some new and interesting reports about the Recap Project and also CO2 Migration in the Overburden.
New technology can give more cost effective CO2 capturehttp://www.climit.no/en/new-technology-can-give-more-cost-effective-co2-captureNew technology can give more cost effective CO2 capture2017-09-13T13:02:25ZThe Swing Adsorption Reactor Cluster Concept (SARC ) is an adsorption based post combustion technology that aims at minimizing the energy penalty for CO2 capture.
Key industry players collaborate on climate mitigation projecthttp://www.climit.no/en/key-industry-players-collaborate-on-climate-mitigation-projectKey industry players collaborate on climate mitigation project2017-03-08T09:10:20ZSome of the most influential players in the carbon capture community; SINTEF, NTNU, Engie, Road, Uniper, TNO and TCM are now collaborating to solve a challenge to carbon capture (CCS).
Record interest in climate-related conference in Oslohttp://www.climit.no/en/record-interest-in-climate-related-conference-in-osloRecord interest in climate-related conference in Oslo2017-03-07T15:10:57ZThe world’s leading researchers in carbon capture, transport and storage - better known as CCS - have gathered today at the Soria Moria Hotel and Conference Centre in Oslo.
Four new reports and studies from IEAGHGhttp://www.climit.no/en/four-new-reports-and-studies-from-ieaghgFour new reports and studies from IEAGHG2017-03-01T18:50:15ZFour new IEA GHG reports and studies are now avaiable on climit.no.
CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in North sea chalk oil field – can CO2 be permanently stored?http://www.climit.no/en/224907-co2-for-enhanced-oil-recovery-in-north-sea-chalk-oil-field-–-can-co2-be-permanently-storedCO2 for enhanced oil recovery in North sea chalk oil field – can CO2 be permanently stored?2017-02-18T10:37:13Z​Norway needs knowledge that facilitates large-scale CO2 storage, including the link between enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 injection, on pressure buildup as CO2 is injected and how to ensure that the CO2 is permanently immobilized.
Two new IEAGHG reportshttp://www.climit.no/en/two-new-ieaghg-reportsTwo new IEAGHG reports2017-02-06T19:09:39ZTwo new IEAGHG reports are now avaiable.
New IEAGHG reportshttp://www.climit.no/en/new-iea-reportsNew IEAGHG reports2017-01-08T11:26:11ZThree new IEAGHG reports are now avaiable.
Two new reports and studies from IEAGHGhttp://www.climit.no/en/two-new-reports-and-studies-from-ieaghgTwo new reports and studies from IEAGHG2016-10-25T17:43:16ZTwo new IEA GHG reports and one workshop summary are now avaiable on climit.no.
New reports and studies from IEAGHGhttp://www.climit.no/en/new-reports-and-studies-from-ieaghgNew reports and studies from IEAGHG2016-08-31T09:13:49ZThree new IEA GHG reports and one workshop summary are now avaiable on climit.no.
Welcome to the CLIMIT PhD seminar 2016http://www.climit.no/en/welcome-to-the-climit-phd-seminar-2016Welcome to the CLIMIT PhD seminar 20162016-08-18T13:45:48ZEach autumn the Research Council of Norway is setting up a seminar that has become very popular – The CLIMIT PhD Seminar.
Changes in the CLIMIT secretariathttp://www.climit.no/en/changes-in-the-climit-secretariatChanges in the CLIMIT secretariat2016-07-13T11:57:06ZHans Jörg Fell has resigned from his position in Gassnova and will thus also be leaving his post as head of CLIMIT's secretariat.
CLIMIT Annual report 2015http://www.climit.no/en/climit-annual-report-2015CLIMIT Annual report 20152016-05-21T06:58:16ZA SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTOR: CLIMIT’s long-standing work has significantly advanced CCS research and has made Norwegian research environments highly attractive partners for researchers in other countries.
Climate technology is ready to be usedhttp://www.climit.no/en/climate-technology-is-ready-to-be-usedClimate technology is ready to be used2016-04-15T08:04:25ZThe CCS climate technology has made major advances and now functions in an industrial scale. This is what 10 years of research and development – supported by the CLIMIT research programme – has contributed to.
Success for CLIMIT’s largest projecthttp://www.climit.no/en/success-for-climit’s-largest-projectSuccess for CLIMIT’s largest project2016-03-15T18:35:52ZSOLVit, CLIMIT’s largest ever research project, was concluded at year-end. The results will help put Norway in a good position when the construction of a full-scale carbon capture plant starts.
New programme plan will identify the changes occurring around ushttp://www.climit.no/en/new-programme-plan-will-identify-the-changes-occurring-around-usNew programme plan will identify the changes occurring around us2016-03-10T16:26:28ZAn increasing number of people view CCS as a tool for solving climate problems, also in countries that were previously sceptical. CLIMIT's programme board and secretariat are now developing a new programme plan that will capture these new trends.
Working session on second and third generation CO2 capture technologieshttp://www.climit.no/en/working-session-on-second-and-third-generation-co2-capture-technologiesWorking session on second and third generation CO2 capture technologies2016-03-10T16:20:11ZSummary from the CLIMIT workshop on “Emerging CO2 Capture Technologies” 26–27 January 2016 at Gardermoen.
Familiarise yourself with the new regulations in CLIMIT Demohttp://www.climit.no/en/familiarise-yourself-with-the-new-regulations-in-climit-demoFamiliarise yourself with the new regulations in CLIMIT Demo2016-02-22T09:00:31ZIn order to receive support from CLIMIT Demo, applicants must comply with the regulations. It is important that the project contributes to achieving the programme’s goals and that it fulfils the award criteria.
Norwegian CCS expertise draws Americanshttp://www.climit.no/en/norwegian-ccs-expertise-draws-americansNorwegian CCS expertise draws Americans2016-02-22T08:52:50ZUsually, Norwegian technology companies establish a presence in the US to be closer to the technology environments over there.
New burner could generate coal power with low CO2 emissionshttp://www.climit.no/en/new-burner-could-generate-coal-power-with-low-co2-emissionsNew burner could generate coal power with low CO2 emissions2016-02-22T08:46:40ZAn important piece of the puzzle is now in place for coal power with low CO2 emissions. The BIGH2 CLIMIT project has developed a new type of gas turbine burner.
New programme plan for CLIMIT in 2017http://www.climit.no/en/new-programme-plan-for-climit-in-2017New programme plan for CLIMIT in 20172016-02-09T14:27:45ZThe CLIMIT secretariat is working on a new programme plan for CLIMIT, which will enter into effect from 2017.
NOK 99 million for new projectshttp://www.climit.no/en/nok-99-million-for-new-projectsNOK 99 million for new projects2016-01-28T18:52:38ZCLIMIT’s programme board recently allocated NOK 99 million to 13 new R&D projects within capture and storage of CO2.
Major opportunities for Norwegian playershttp://www.climit.no/en/major-opportunities-for-norwegian-playersMajor opportunities for Norwegian players2016-01-28T18:43:55ZThe major announcement that will kick the development of CCS technology into high gear is coming in February. The European Commission and nine member countries are adding NOK 400 million to the pot in ERA-NET Cofund CCS.
CLIMIT status at the end of 2015http://www.climit.no/en/climit-status-at-the-end-of-2015CLIMIT status at the end of 20152016-01-28T14:44:41ZIn its anniversary year, the international collaboration has been reinforced, and two major and important CLIMIT projects were concluded.
Impartiality in processing CLIMIT applicationshttp://www.climit.no/en/impartiality-in-processing-climit-applicationsImpartiality in processing CLIMIT applications2015-11-19T10:03:31ZThe programme board and secretariat in CLIMIT are subject to clear rules for when members are considered to be partial or impartial. This is to prevent favouritism or distortion of competition when applications are assessed.
New mandate for the programme board of the CLIMIT programmehttp://www.climit.no/en/new-mandate-for-the-programme-board-of-the-climit-programmeNew mandate for the programme board of the CLIMIT programme2015-11-16T18:32:51ZThe Ministry of Petroleum and Energy has clarified the mandate for the programme board and the support scheme regulations for CLIMIT Demo. Gassnova will have a more clear responsibility.
Award from CLIMIT Demo in October 2015http://www.climit.no/en/award-from-climit-demo-in-october-2015Award from CLIMIT Demo in October 20152015-11-16T18:27:31ZAker Subsea has received support for a pilot project for technology qualification of sub-sea bulk separation of well stream containing CO2 based on membranes.
CLIMIT PhD Seminar: - Young researchers show how to do it!http://www.climit.no/en/climit-phd-seminar-young-researchers-show-how-to-do-itCLIMIT PhD Seminar: - Young researchers show how to do it!2015-10-29T12:45:14ZThe PhD seminar in Trondheim 23-24 September showed that young PhD og PostDoc candidates have many interesting solutions for new and innovative CCS technologies.
Dual phase membranes for CO2 separation in power generation (DUALCO2)http://www.climit.no/en/dual-phase-membranes-for-co2-separation-in-power-generation-(dualco2)Dual phase membranes for CO2 separation in power generation (DUALCO2)2015-10-27T19:15:27Z<p style="font-family:calibri, candara, segoe, 'segoe ui', optima, arial, sans-serif;font-size:16px;"><em>​Some 15 years ago I was invited along with many others from Norwegian academia and research institutes in a brain-storming event at Norsk Hydro's research centre in Porsgrunn, where they inspired and asked us to suggest innovative new ways of capturing CO2. Many ideas came up, to the best of my knowledge none that took off to any extent at that time. At the end of the event I stated "One can of course absorb a liquid metal carbonate into a porous ceramic and use it as a carbonate ion conducting membrane permeable to CO2, but it is unthinkable to make it work in practice…" And we all went separate ways and forgot about it.</em></p><h2>Background</h2><p style="font-family:calibri, candara, segoe, 'segoe ui', optima, arial, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">Some years ago the unthinkable had become thinkable: Research labs around the world started to make nanoporous ceramics filled with Li2CO3 or corresponding Li-Na-K carbonate eutectics, operating at 5-600°C. The membrane is gastight by the solid-liquid composite and was shown to be selectively permeable to CO2. It was popular to use ceria, CeO2, or acceptor-doped ceria, as the ceramic phase, since it is among the few materials which do not react with molten alkali carbonates.</p><p style="font-family:calibri, candara, segoe, 'segoe ui', optima, arial, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">It was clear that the molten carbonate provides fast transport of carbonate ions, CO32-. But what was the charge-compensating species? It was assumed that the ceria acts as an electronic conductor, or as an oxide ion conductor, providing transport of negative charges in the opposite direction of the carbonate ions. It was however observed that the flux of CO2 tended to exceed that expected from the electronic and oxide ionic conductivity of the ceria, which would be the rate limiting factor. It was therefore a common belief that the interface between the liquid and solid phases had enhanced transport of some kind, hence the need for a nanoscopic microstructure. Simultaneously, separate reports on nanograined ceria with molten salts for fuel cells suggested that this transport had to be protonic.</p><p style="font-family:calibri, candara, segoe, 'segoe ui', optima, arial, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">SINTEF had activities on such dual phase membranes and invited UiO for discussions about their operating principle and how they could be improved. UiO had ideas of the reality (or lack of reality) in the claims of protonic and other transport in the interfaces of the nanoscopic solid-liquid composite. It was suspected that the carbonate itself is partly a protonic conductor by partial hydration and that this was the true cause of the flux of CO2 and other phenomena. Moreover, UiO suggested that the unique techniques it uses to measure the transference numbers of various ions in solids might be transferable to liquids, and that trying it on alkali carbonates might lead to breakthrough scientific understanding and foundation for improving the performance of the membranes. On this background the DUALCO2 project was conceived and proposed.​</p><h2>Objectives and background (from the project application)</h2><p style="font-family:calibri, candara, segoe, 'segoe ui', optima, arial, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">The main objective of DUALCO2 is to determine transport mechanisms of dual phase membranes both at the microscopic scale by identifying chemical reactions and species involved in the molecular separation and ionic transport, and at the reactor scale, by operating the membranes in selected operating conditions enabling to screen effect of pressure, steam, pO2, pH2 and pCO2 on flux and stability. This is a first time ever pioneering work requiring specific competences and tools brought in by the selected partners. The secondary objectives of the project define the main activities of the project and are </p><ol style="font-size:16px;font-family:calibri, candara, segoe, 'segoe ui', optima, arial, sans-serif;"><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">the development of membranes with tailored characteristics for screening of properties,</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">the study of transport properties with the development of specific tools for electrical measurement,</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">the evaluation of membrane performance in operation, and</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">the evaluation of membrane integration in processes.</span></li></ol><h2>Methodology and Results</h2><img src="file:///C:/Users/Claude/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.png" alt="" style="line-height:24px;width:1px;margin:5px;" /><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">In short, UiO developed a novel cell for providing two different gases with different pCO2, pO2, and pH2O to two different electrodes in molten A2CO3 (A = Li, Na, K in eutectic ratios) (see Figure below). </span><div style="line-height:24px;"><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/DualCO2_Figur%201%20400.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></span> </div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">By this we can measure the voltage, given by the electromotive force (EMF) and transport number of the various ions. It was a long process to understand that the melt partly decomposes and hydrates to contain a mixture of carbonate, oxide, and hydroxide ions, that this gave rise to permeation fluxes, and that the resulting electrode polarization during measurements was key to correct interpretation. However, in a paper recently published</span><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftn1" style="line-height:1.5;font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;background-color:#ffffff;">[1]</a><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"> over these pioneering studies we are finally able to conclude that the molten carbonate is a mixed carbonate, oxide ion, and hydroxide ion conductor. We herein show a novel method for such measurements, we derive models for the effect, measurements, and correction of electrode polarization. We make it likely that the permeation of CO2 through composites of alkali carbonates and ceria is not dependent on transport in or on the ceria phase, but enabled by charge compensating oxide and/or hydroxide ion conductivities in the melt itself. These results have also been presented at numerous conferences and are well received.</span><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftn2" style="line-height:1.5;font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;background-color:#ffffff;">[2]</a><p> <span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">The figure below shows transport numbers for carbonate (a) and oxide ions (b) und</span><strong style="line-height:1.5;font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;"></strong><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">er dry conditions, and for carbonate (c) and hydroxide ions (d) under wet conditions (humidified gases). The results are shown as a function of the chemical gradient used in the EMF measurement, and the expected valid value is obtained by extrapolation back to zero gradient. Open symbols show the values corrected for electrode polarization, showing that the melt is essentially a carbonate ion conductor, but with significant transport numbers (order of a few percent) of oxide and hydroxide ions. Since the conductivity of the melt is so high, even transport numbers of a percent for these charge compensating carriers is enough to mask the conductivity of the ceramic phase, and give high CO2 fluxes when operated as a membrane.  </span></p><p><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/DuaCO2_Figur%202.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /></span> <span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">SINTEF focused on membrane fabrication, flux characterization and performance assessment. The dip coating method was used for infiltrating molten carbonates into a prepared porous support to finalize the architecture of a dual phase CO2 membrane. The CO2 flux was measured at different conditions to address different fundamental questions such as the effect of porosity and identity of the charge compensating current. The technology, methodology, and results are published in two papers</span><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftn3" style="line-height:1.5;font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;background-color:#ffffff;">[3]</a><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">,</span><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftn4" style="line-height:1.5;font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;background-color:#ffffff;">[4]</a><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"> and selected results presented in the following.</span></p></div><div><p>The left-hand figure below shows CO2 permeabilities through different membranes. The top curve shows a membrane sealed with silver paste. The high flux is interpreted as electrons in the paste seal providing the charge compensating current. In this case the CO2 is accompanied by a flux of O2 through the membrane in order to make up the composition of the current of CO32- ions.</p><p>The same figure has also three curves where the seal was made with a non-conductive Aremco cement. The fluxes are lower, now compensating the current of carbonate ions with a back-current of oxide ions through the solid ceria or molten carbonate phase. The curves show that the fluxes are higher for a less dense (more porous) ceramic which means more liquid phase. This indicates that the oxide ions flow in the molten carbonate, as suggested by the results from the measurements at UiO.</p><p>The right-hand figure below shows the effect humidifying the gases, in this case the feed side. Similar results are obtained by addition of steam to the permeate side. It leads in both cases to a large increase in CO2 flux, interpreted as dissolution of water in the carbonate to replace some carbonate ions with hydroxide ions. This provides current compensation for the carbonate ions by means of backwards transport of hydroxide ions. Again the observation and interpretation are in correspondence with the transport numbers of hydroxide ions measured at UiO.</p><p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/DualCO2%20Figur%203.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /> <span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">In order to further demonstrate that the compensating currents go mainly in the molten carbonate and not in the ceramic phase, we did measurements with both oxide ion conducting ceria and non-conducting alumina as porous ceramic support. They showed comparable fluxes in support of our findings. In addition, we studied the dissolution of metal oxides in the molten carbonates and observe in some cases that they enhance the CO2 flux further, in agreement with the conclusions above.</span></p><p><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">Long-term testing for evaluating the membrane stability was also performed under different working conditions as shown in the figure below. It shows a relatively stable operation and CO2 flux over 60 days at 550°C, with negligible leakages of diluting gases O2 and He. The CO2 flux increases 4 times by increasing the temperature to 650°C, while background leakage remains low, as seen in the right hand part of the graph.</span></p><p>Performance assessment was carried out by considering a 400 MW power plant with the dual phase CO2 separation membranes integrated in both post- and pre-combustion conditions. The overall energy efficiency after CO2 capture using dual phase CO2 separation as compared to MEA based post-combustion capture process is lower. However, the dual phase CO2 separation membrane outperformed the capture process of Selexol under pre-combustion capture condition.</p><p>All in all, we summarise and conclude the project as follows:</p><ol><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">Methods for fabrication and sealing dual phase CO2 separation membranes were developed for permeation tests and fundamental studies.</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">Hydroxide ions from steam and oxide ions (intrinsically or by addition of foreign oxides) can be dissolved in molten carbonates and will provide charge compensation for carbonate ions and hence enable CO2 permeation.</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">We have shown – contrary to earlier anticipation - that the permeation is an intrinsic property of the molten carbonate, and that the ceramic phase is passive.    </span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">The CO2 flux is highly influenced by the presence of steam and gradients of not only CO2, but also steam and oxygen.</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">The membranes fabricated in this project operate stably at 600°C for months.</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">A conceptual and mathematical model for the ambipolar transport of charged species under various chemical gradients was developed and used for interpretation of fundamental and permeation investigations.</span></li><li><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">The process performance assessment shows that the membrane can be implemented in the pre-combustion CO2 capture process with higher energy efficiency after capture as compared to the current technology of Selexol.</span></li></ol><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">By this, the main and part objectives of the project have largely been reached.​</span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"></span><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;"><span style="color:#777777;font-family:dinweb-medium, 'helvetica neue', helvetica, arial, sans-serif;font-size:19.2px;line-height:29.8667px;">Implementation and use of resources</span>​</span></div><div><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:1em;line-height:1.5;">The project was carried out with the projected budgets at UiO and SINTEF. It was extended compared with the original plan due to the processes of employing qualified a post-doctoral researcher at UiO. It has trained a young post-doctoral researcher at UiO in a collaborative project between UiO and an industrial research institute. The post-doc stayed for 3 months in an exchange visit to a university in France – one of the international partners in the project.</span></div><div></div><div><p>The post-doc took actively part in increasing the interaction between the partners by being the responsible researcher at UiO in the Gemini centre FORENT between SINTEF and UiO.</p><p>The project had two international partners: Prof. U. Balachandran, Argonne Natl. Labs., USA acted as a discussion partner through several exchange visits. Prof. M. Cassir's group in Paris, France, is an authority in molten carbonate fuel cells, and was the host for our post-doc fellow's exchange visit, during which we mutually learned a lot from the partners' different expertise.​</p><h2>Significance and benefits of the results</h2><p>A result of the project is that further optimization may concentrate on the properties of the molten phase, and that the ceramic phase is merely a passive support. Moreover, the transported species are now understood, and the effects of partial pressures of CO2, O2, and H2O and their gradients can thus be predicted. We have found that the technology is beneficial in pre-combustion CCS more than in post-combustion ​</p><h2>Plans for disseminating and utilising the results, and follow-up research</h2><p>The work has been published so far in 3 peer-reviewed articles in international journals and disseminated in a large number of conference lectures and in other connections.</p><p>The project has led to participation in related research projects, notably a EU ERANET NEW INDIGO project with partners in India (New Delhi and Kolkata (Calcutta)), Turkey, Portugal, and Finland (coordinator), where UiO is partner. It is also basis for further project applications to RCN, and has recently been partly foundational for an application to an EU FET-OPEN RIA application on liquid-solid composite ionic membranes, where UiO is coordinator and SINTEF is partner, along with 4 other international and national institute and industry partners. ​</p><p><a href="/en/projects/researcher-project-(rcn)">Fact sheet​</a><br></p><h2>Notes</h2><p><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftnref1">[1]</a> A. Evans, Wen Xing, T. Norby, "Electromotive force (EMF) determination of transport numbers for native and foreign ions in molten alkali metal carbonates", <em>J. Electrochem. Soc.</em>, <strong>162</strong> [10] (2015) F1135-43.</p><p><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftnref2">[2]</a> The partial decomposition and hydration of Li<span style="font-size:12px;line-height:0;vertical-align:baseline;bottom:-0.25em;">2</span>CO<span style="font-size:12px;line-height:0;vertical-align:baseline;bottom:-0.25em;">3</span> at high temperatures is as expected from thermodynamics, and was known to the community in molten carbonate fuel cells half a centennium ago. However, the knowledge had not transferred to today's membrane community. It was hence necessary to measure and show it again, and now with new and more convincing methods and understanding.</p><p><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftnref3">[3]</a> M.-L. Fontaine, T. Peters, «CO2 removal at high temperature from multi-component gas stream using porous ceramic membranes infiltrated with molten carbonates», <em>Energy Procedia</em>, <strong>27</strong> (2013) 941-951.</p><p><a href="file:///C:/Users/Claude/Dropbox/CLIMIT/CLIMIT%202015/Nyhetsbrev%2015-07/DualCO2%20Final%20Report%20tekst.docx#_ftnref4">[4]</a> Wen Xing, T. Peters, M.-L. Fontaine, A. Evans, P. Pakdel Henriksen, T. Norby, R. Bredesen, «Steam-promoted CO<span style="font-size:12px;line-height:0;vertical-align:baseline;bottom:-0.25em;">2</span> flux in dual-phase CO<span style="font-size:12px;line-height:0;vertical-align:baseline;bottom:-0.25em;">2</span> separation membranes», <em>J. Membrane Science, </em><strong>482 </strong>(2015), 115-119.​​</p></div></div>
Norwegian-US R&D collaboration on CO2 storagehttp://www.climit.no/en/norwegian-us-rd-collaboration-on-co2-storageNorwegian-US R&D collaboration on CO2 storage2015-10-01T07:54:11ZOne million tonnes of CO2 have been stored in the Decatur project in Illinois in the US. The Norwegian R&D community is strengthening its cooperation with Decatur to learn more from one of the world’s most interesting CO2 storage pilots.
Here comes ACT!http://www.climit.no/en/here-comes-actHere comes ACT!2015-10-01T07:49:16ZThe European Commission recently decided to support the application for ERA-NET Cofund CCS. This means that the project, which has been named ACT, will have a budget of EUR 43 million.
CLIMIT Demo is an accelerator for CCShttp://www.climit.no/en/climit-demo-is-an-accelerator-for-ccsCLIMIT Demo is an accelerator for CCS2015-09-25T16:46:54ZAn external evaluation shows that CLIMIT Demo contributes to development of new concepts and to improving processes and products that would otherwise never have been realised. The Demo part has reduced the costs and risks associated with CCS.
Impatient new board memberhttp://www.climit.no/en/impatient-new-board-memberImpatient new board member2015-09-25T16:41:04ZNewly elected member of CLIMIT’s programme board Marie Bysveen wants to get CCS started in Europe as well, not just North America. She believes CLIMIT can play an important global role in the development of CCS.
Record applications for CLIMIT R&Dhttp://www.climit.no/en/record-applications-for-climit-rdRecord applications for CLIMIT R&D2015-09-25T16:34:42ZThe deadline for CLIMIT R&D applications was 9 September, and a whopping 47 applications were submitted. Never before has CLIMIT received so many applications for an announcement.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is alive and wellhttp://www.climit.no/en/carbon-capture-and-storage-(ccs)-is-alive-and-wellCarbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is alive and well2015-09-21T13:03:30ZThe world's foremost CCS experts have been gathered at an international meeting at Høvik, outside Oslo, to discuss Norwegian and international developments in the field of CCS.
Fruitful US carbon capture cooperationhttp://www.climit.no/en/fruitful-us-carbon-capture-cooperationFruitful US carbon capture cooperation2015-07-13T07:56:23ZBoth Norway and the US are reaping major benefits from carbon capture collaboration projects. In two ongoing projects, Norcem, SINTEF and the US company RTI are gaining useful experience.


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